Smart Buildings and Smart Homes – Securing the Buildings of the future

Smart Buildings and Smart Homes

Securing the Buildings of the future

Marc Ruef
by Marc Ruef
on January 10, 2019
time to read: 8 minutes

Keypoints

This is how cybercriminals break into your home

  • Among the grand visions promised by the IoT are smart buildings and smart homes
  • Electronic sensors are designed so automatisms can behave proactively and reactively
  • This can include adaptive adjustments to the ventilation system or shades
  • When designing and implementing smart buildings, cybersecurity must be considered from the outset
  • In the future, building IT engineers will offer an important professional service when it comes to safeguarding homes against virtual and physical attack

The Internet of Things (IoT), along with all its pros and cons, has been a topic of discussion for years now. These discussions have focused on specific devices and device types. But what often gets ignored is that smart buildings and smart homes have already been around for a long time in the form of electronically controlled and networked buildings. This article discusses the effect future developments will have on the way we live and the impact they will have on digital security.

What are Smart Buildings?

Smart buildings or smart homes are buildings equipped with electronic sensors and networking functions to offer a maximum level of comfort and efficiency. The data collected by the sensors is used to react to dynamic situations. When the weather changes, the heating can be adjusted (heating curve), or lights and ventilation can be turned on when someone enters a room.

This dynamism requires that the sensors deliver accurate data and are able to transmit and process this data freely so that the proper action can be performed.

A hacker can exploit these dynamics, for example, by profiling the inhabitants and their habits for the purpose of planning a break-in. Compromised devices can make this sort of spying easier. Criminals can also use manipulation for purposes of extortion, threatening occupants with damage in order to get what they want.

A ransomware-infected heating system

Building with a Focus on Cybersecurity

Because smart buildings have led to more complex networking requirements, it is becoming increasingly important to consider cybersecurity aspects during planning, construction and management. In the future, this will be a major aspect of the still relatively new field of building informatics (GIN).

The association Bauen digital Schweiz has formed a focus group to study this very topic. The Netzwerk Digital network convenes regularly to coordinate projects among its various members. Members include SIA (regulatory), CRB (standardization) and KBOB/IPB (public and private building developers).

Bauen digital Schweiz is also a member of buildingSMART International, an international organization that deals with new and ongoing developments in the field of smart buildings.

Cybersecurity for building IT Engineers

Building informatics is a highly multifaceted profession. On the one hand, it includes traditional aspects, such as energy utility installation. This includes modern technologies like solar power, smart meters and heating, ventilation systems, air conditioning, blinds, etc. Even here security is not a foreign concept, as access and gate control systems, alarm systems, video surveillance, etc. are just as important.

Obviously, intruders can make a lot of headway by manipulating these elements. So it is essential to protect the individual components and their integration into the network:

It is important to remember cybersecurity starts with the design of the building. As with conventional computer and network security, it is considerably more difficult to retrofit security than simply doing it right to begin with. Performing upgrades after the fact always involves additional technical construction and costs.

Elements of a smart building

Devices and their Risks

A variety of device classes are used in smart buildings, and each is associated with its own unique risks. These include:

Many providers of these solutions rely on cloud-based mechanisms to provide convenient, user-friendly interfaces for controlling them. This cloud connection is a key part of the solution, and safeguarding it (or at least performing a risk assessment) is essential.

Conclusion

IoT is not a brand-new topic. But in some areas awareness of IoT is only just beginning. In the field of medical technology it has become clear that cybersecurity is now a central issue. This awareness must now be extended to smart buildings. Networked buildings and devices can be exploited and, at worst, cause real damage.

Yet with all of these new possibilities, the question still remains:

Is a given function really necessary?

The risk associated with manipulation of a heating system may outweigh the advantage of being able to control it over the Internet. If so, this sort of integration might be best avoided.

About the Author

Marc Ruef

Marc Ruef has been working in information security since the late 1990s. He is well-known for his many publications and books. The last one called The Art of Penetration Testing is discussing security testing in detail. He is a lecturer at several universities, like ETH, HWZ, HSLU and IKF. (ORCID 0000-0002-1328-6357)

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